Nearly one person in two is overweight in France and obesity is progressing, to the point of affecting 17% of adults (1). “It’s a public health problem”, specifies Dr. Martine Cotinat, gastroenterologist and author of Lose weight with pleasure by charming your bacteria (Thierry Soucar).
“While being overweight exposes you to serious forms of Covid-19, it is involved in many pathologies: joint by increasing osteoarthritis flare-ups; digestive (gastro-oesophageal reflux and inflammation of the colon); liver (NASH (3)); metabolic (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia imbalance) and cardiovascular, neurological (stroke, dementia…) and, finally, sleep (apnea), she warns, not to mention certain cancers (colon, liver, breast, kidney…). “Back all the way?”We are not equal when it comes to weight loss, but it is facilitated by a better knowledge of the body and its needs.“, assures Frédéric Derat-Carrière, nutritionist at the Thermes Marins de Saint-Malo.
1) 2021 figures from the League Against Obesity.
(3) Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
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“Tell me what you eat and I’ll tell you why you’re struggling to lose weight!” Obviously… If the energy intake is greater than the expenditure, it’s mission impossible.
• Age is presented as an aggravating factor. However, a recent study (4) showed that metabolism changed little until the age of sixty. “This is without counting on the differences in constitution and way of life between individuals”, warns Frédéric Derat-Carrière.
• Stress, heart rate and feelings of deprivation (the three being linked) explain variable weight loss from one person to another, weight loss program comparablealso observe Canadian researchers (5).
• The intestinal microbiota and its composition also play a key role. “Stress and an unsuitable diet induce the development of certain bacteria in the intestine, causing an imbalance in the composition of the microbiota, promoting weight gain, reminds Dr. Cotinat. Conversely, by often degrading the image of self, being overweight aggravates stress, limits physical activity and therefore the ability to fight.”
• And if successive regimes were the cause? They have clearly demonstrated their negative effect, cognitive restriction being counterproductive
(4) Science, August 12, 2021. (5) Frontiers in Nutrition, November 2, 2021.
The parameters to be evaluated
An overview is necessary to identify its flaws.
• The nutritional balance
What do we eat, in what proportion, when and above all, why? What holds us back or pushes us to break down?
“A nutritionist can help decipher the answers and moderate the share of emotions in our relationship to food”, assures Frédéric Derat-Carrière.
• Body mass index (BMI)
Calculate that of today, those of ten years ago and that of your 20 years to confirm a trend (BMI = weight in kg divided by height in meters squared).
• Body composition
This is’assess the ratio between fat mass and lean massthe latter facilitates the ability to draw on energy intake and fat reserves.
Spectroscopic bioimpedancemetry devices, in the office or in the centre, which scan the whole body, are more reliable than personal impedancemetry scales.
• Indirect calorimetry
This assessment method relies on the respiratory quotient (CO2 released versus oxygen absorbed) to estimate the energy expenditure at rest and identify the ability to lose weight“, explains the nutritionist.
Extra pounds: my program
A thoughtful diet
“Overall, we need eat a lot of fiber (fruits and vegetables), more vegetable protein (legumes and cereals) and fermented foods (certain dairy products and vegetables), as well as antioxidants (vitamins, polyphenols) and essential fatty acids (Omega 3), lists Dr. Cotinat. And organic, if possible, because less pesticides means fewer gut microbiota disruptors and fewer weight problems: it’s scientifically proven*.”
According to Frédéric Derat-Carrière, “to facilitate weight loss, you can increase lean body mass by muscle building and improve their aerobic capacity and respiratory quotient through cardio training, with a medically supervised effort retrainingif necessary”.
Provided by a psychotherapist, a hypnotherapist or a sophrologist, it helps to understand the weaknesses linked to its history and the emotions that disturb the relationship to food and the microbiota, assures Dr Cotinat. It allows you to work on your self-image for a more positive relationship with your body.”
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* British Journal of Nutrition, February 7, 2017
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